In this multi-project, we study adsorption and transport processes of various ions and molecules on solid-liquid interfaces. Specifically, MD simulations are carried out to explore the role of different metal ions on the adsorption behavior of water-mica interfaces. More complex liquids such as ILs and DESs are also studied for the effect of chain-length and presence of water on metal and non-metal surfaces. Additionally, we examine transport processes of ionic species confined between a negatively charged mica surface and an electric charge modulated gold surface using Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA) and MD simulations. Lastly, DFT calculations are conducted to understand the redox reaction mechanism in the mussel adhesion process.